How Are Solar Panels Made?

The cost of solar panels has declined dramatically over the last few years – which is directly related to a refinement in manufacturing processes. We’re now seeing a new generation of solar panels that are much more efficient and durable. The future holds even more exciting possibilities such as graphene coatings and lightweight panels that don’t use glass.

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The most common material used to create solar panels is silicon. It’s found in large amounts in natural beach sand, and it’s also the second most abundant element on Earth. Once mined, it is melted and purified in a steel furnace to form ingots (blocks) in the shape of cylinders. During this process, special attention is given to align silicon atoms to the desired structure and orientation. Boron is then added to the melted silicon to give it a positive electrical polarity. For details on Solar Panel Installation Nailsea, go to

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A circuit is then formed in the n-type layer of the silicon wafer by connecting it to the p-type layer using thin wires. This enables electrons to flow through the cell and generate electricity. Most PV systems are based on individual solar cells a few inches square and these are grouped together to form modules or panels.

Throughout the manufacturing process, each solar panel is tested under standard test conditions. This ensures that the panel meets its projected output, efficiency and durability over time. Once the panels are ready, they’re fitted with aluminium frames and a back sheet of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). This layer protects the modules from environmental stress and provides protection against moisture.